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The Anglo-Saxon Conquest of Britain / Завоевание Англии Англо-саксами

The Celts remained independent when the Roman armies left Britain, but it did not last long.

Already in the 4th century Britain was raided by the Germanic tribes — the Angles, the Saxons and the Jutes. The tribes of Angles and Saxons came from the territory of modern Germany and Denmark. As for the Jutes, their tribe was smaller and they came from Juteland (modern northern Denmark).

All beautiful towns and buildings left by the Romans were destroyed by these barbaric people.

Of all three tribes, the Angles became the strongest. Later two tribes of the Angles and the Saxons united and were called Anglo-Saxons. These Anglo-Saxon people are the ancestors of the English.

They called their speech English and their country — England, that is "the Land of Angles".

The British Celts (the Britons) fought the raiders. But they took houses, fields and cattle from the Britons. So the Britons had to go to the mountains in the far West and settle there. The Saxons called that place "Weallas" or "Wales" meaning "the land of the foreigners". This part of Britain is called Wales now. Other Celts were driven into the lands in the North which became known as Scotland. So, Wales and the highlands of Scotland are inhabited by the oldest Scots called today "the Celtic fringe of the island".

Anglo-Saxons founded 10 separate kingdoms, the most powerful of which were Wessex, Sussex, Essex, Kent, East Anglia, Mercia and Northumbria. These seven are known as heptarchy ['hepta:kI] and they are now some of the counties of Great Britain.

The strength of Anglo-Saxon culture is obvious even today. Days of the week are named after Germanic Gods.

This conquest of Britain by Germanic tribes is regarded as the beginning of the medieval history of the country.

 

 


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